What we have learned

  • What is a Pod?
    • Minimal unit for Kubermetes
  • Create a Pod
    • kubectl run db --image mongo
    • Declarative way using yaml
  • Monitor Pod health by using livenessProbe
  • Using RepicaSet to scale Pod
  • What is a Service?
    • Service is an abstraction that defines a set of Pods and a policy to access them
  • Service Type
    • Cluster IP
    • NodePort
    • LoadBalancer
    • ExternalName
  • Create a Service
    • Using expose
      • kubectl expose rs go-demo-2 --name=go-demo-2-svc --target-port=28017 --type=NodePort
    • Declarative way using yaml
      • cat go-demo-2-svc.yml
  • Use Deployment to create ReplicaSet
  • Application Type
    • Long-running => Deployment
    • Batch => Job/CronJob
    • Node-daemon => DaemonSet
    • Stateful Application => StatefulSet
  • Docker Network
  • Kubernetes Network
    • Pod Network
    • Service Network
    • NodePort, LoadBalancer and Ingress

Cluster Management

  • Node isolation and recovery
  • Scale the Kubernetes cluster
  • Manage Namespace and Context
  • Cloud Kubernetes Cluster Management

Node isolation and recovery

kubectl replace -f unschedule_node.yaml

Use kubectl patch:

kubectl patch node k8s-node-1 -p '{"spec": {"unschedulable": true}}'

Use kubectl cordon:

kubectl cordon k8s-node-1
kubectl uncordon k8s-node-1

Scale the Kubernetes cluster

  • Install Docker, kubelet, kube-proxy
  • Config start params for kubelet and kube-proxy
  • Config Master URL to point to the master node of the cluster

Manage Namespace and Context

Create dev and prod namespaces:

kubectl create -f namespace-dev.yaml
kubectl create -f namespace-prod.yaml
kubectl config set-context ctx-dev --namespace=development --cluster=docker-for-desktop-cluster --user=docker-for-desktop
kubectl config set-context ctx-prod --namespace=production --cluster=docker-for-desktop-cluster --user=docker-for-desktop

Try to run a pod in production namespace:

kubectl run db --image mongo

Cloud Kubernetes Cluster Management

KOPS: https://github.com/kubernetes/kops

The easiest way to get a production grade Kubernetes cluster up and running.

Metrics and Logs Collection and Analysis

Horizontal Pod Autoscaling

Enable Pod to autoscale horizontally.

  • Before Kubernetes 1.6, metrics are collected via kubelet
  • After Kubernetes 1.6, metrics are collected via API Server, Heapster, kube-aggregator

  • Only apply to Deployment and ReplicaSet
  • Only support autoscalling based on Pod CPU utilization for V1
  • Support autoscalling based on Memory and other custom metrics for V1alpha

Manage HPA

Manage HPA using kubectl as other resource object such as Deployment:

kubectl create hpa
kubectl get hpa
kubectl describe hpa
kubectl delete hpa

Create HPA using kubectl autoscale:

kubectl autoscale (-f FILENAME | TYPE NAME | TYPE/NAME) [--min=MINPODS] --max=MAXPODS
[--cpu-percent=CPU] [flags] [options]


kubectl autoscale deployment foo --min=2 --max=5 --cpu-percent=80

Cluster and Application Monitoring


Heapster is a default installed plugin for Kubernetes cluster. HPA uses Heapster as Resource Metrics API and get metrics data from it.

Start Heapster with option --api-server=true to achive this.

  • Heapster can collect cAdvisor data from Node.
  • Heapster can get CPU, Memory, Network and Disk metrics grouped by Kubernetes resources such as Pod and Namespace.

Metrics Server

Heapster is deprecated since Kubernetes 1.11. Release Note.

Metrics Server is a cluster-wide aggregator of resource usage data.



Prometheus is open-sourced by SoundCloud in 2015 and become the second project in CNCF in 2016.

Main functions

  • Multi-Demensional Data
  • Powerfull Query (PromQL)
  • Efficient Storage (Support both local and remote)
  • Pull using http protocol
  • Easy opeation and friendly UI

Main Process

  • Prometheus server periodically get configuration data from target
  • When the pulled data is bigger than configed cache, flush to disk
  • Prometheus can config rule and send alerts when condition triggers
  • AlertManger receives the alerts, aggregate, dedup and send it

First Look at Prometheus

Prometheus Config File:

  scrape_interval:     15s # Set the scrape interval to every 15 seconds. Default is every 1 minute.
  evaluation_interval: 15s # Evaluate rules every 15 seconds. The default is every 1 minute.
  # scrape_timeout is set to the global default (10s).

# Alertmanager configuration
  - static_configs:
    - targets:
      # - alertmanager:9093

# Load rules once and periodically evaluate them according to the global 'evaluation_interval'.
  # - "first_rules.yml"
  # - "second_rules.yml"

# A scrape configuration containing exactly one endpoint to scrape:
# Here it's Prometheus itself.
  # The job name is added as a label `job=<job_name>` to any timeseries scraped from this config.
  - job_name: 'prometheus'

    # metrics_path defaults to '/metrics'
    # scheme defaults to 'http'.

    - targets: ['localhost:9090']

Start Prometheus:

./prometheus --config.file=prometheus.yml

Use Prometheus for Kubernetes

Using GKE and pre-requirement:

kubectl create clusterrolebinding my-cluster-admin-binding --clusterrole=cluster-admin --user=project.owner@gmail.com

Deploy Prometheus via GiantSwarm:

kubectl apply \
  --filename https://raw.githubusercontent.com/giantswarm/kubernetes-prometheus/master/manifests-all.yaml

List the service in namespace monitoring:

kubectl get svc --namespace monitoring

Use port forward to visit grafana:

export POD_NAME=$(kubectl get pods --namespace monitoring -l "app=grafana,component=core" -o jsonpath="{.items[0].metadata.name}")
kubectl port-forward --namespace monitoring $POD_NAME 3000:3000

Visit http://localhost:3000 with admin/admin credential.

Log Collection

  • Splunk
  • ELK
  • Flume + Storm + Kafka + HDFS


kubectl describe pod <pod_name>

Possible reasons for Pod running failed:

  • No available node for scheduling
  • Resource Quata Management on and no available resource on the destination Node
  • Pulling image failed

kubctl describe applies to other resources as well:

  • Node
  • Deployment
  • Service
  • Namespace

Service or Container Problems

kubectl logs <pod_name>

Use -c if the pod contains multiple containers:

kubectl logs <pod_name> -c <container_name>

If the container is down, Volume or other tools like fluentd are needed for the logs collection.

Cluster Problems

If Kubernetes cluster is managed by Linux using systemd:

systemctl status kube-controller-manager -l

Or config the logs directory for Kubernetes:

--logtostderr=false: do not output to stderr
--log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes: log folder

Some Common Problems

  • Pod status is pending and Event has image pull failed keyword
    • Make sure the repository is accessable from the Kubernetes Node
  • Pod status is running but not ready and restarts count inceases
    • Change the start command to foreground instead of backgroud
  • Compute resources related:
    • Pod status is pending and the error msg is FailedScheduling
      • Add more Nodes
      • Stop some Pods to release resources
      • Check the Pod configuration about requests and limits
    • Container is forces Terminated
      • Resources used by container exceed the Limits


  • Add/remove a Node for scheduling
  • Scale up a cluster by adding new nodes
  • Namespace and context
  • Using KOPS to manage cloud kubernetes cluster
  • HPA
  • Heapster => Metrics Server
  • Prometheus and Grafana
  • Troubleshooting Tips